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CNC Machine Tools (Automated Machine Tools)

Apr 09, 2020

CNC machine tool is a digital control machine tool is an automatic machine tool equipped with a program control system. The control system can logically process the program specified by the control code or other symbolic instructions, decode it, express it with coded numbers, and input it into the numerical control device through the information carrier. After the arithmetic processing, various control signals are sent by the numerical control device to control the movement of the machine tool, and the parts are automatically processed according to the shape and size required by the drawing.


The operation and monitoring of CNC machine tools are all completed in this CNC unit, which is the

brain. Compared with ordinary machine tools, CNC machine tools have the following characteristics:

数控机床(图1)

1. Strong adaptability to the processing objects and the characteristics of single-piece production of molds and other products, providing a suitable processing method for the manufacture of molds;

2. High processing precision and stable processing quality;

3. Multi-coordinate linkage can be performed, and parts with complex shapes can be processed;

4. When the processing parts change, generally only need to change the CNC program, which can save production preparation time;

5. The machine tool has high precision and high rigidity, and can choose a favorable amount of processing and high productivity (generally 3 to 5 times that of ordinary machine tools);

6. The high degree of automation of the machine tool can reduce the labor intensity;

7. Conducive to the modernization of production management. CNC machine tools use digital information and standard codes to process and transmit information, and use computer control methods, laying a foundation for the integration of computer-aided design, manufacturing and management;

8. Higher requirements for the quality of the operating personnel, and higher technical requirements for the maintenance personnel;

9. High reliability.


Compared with traditional machine tools, CNC machine tools have the following characteristics.

数控机床(图2)

1. Highly flexible

Machining parts on a CNC machine tool mainly depends on the machining program. It is different from ordinary machine tools. It does not need to be manufactured. Many molds and fixtures need to be replaced. It is not necessary to readjust the machine tool frequently. Therefore, the CNC machine tool is suitable for the occasion where the processed parts are frequently replaced, that is, suitable for the production of single parts, small batch products and the development of new products, thereby shortening the production preparation cycle and saving a lot of cost of process equipment.

2. High processing accuracy

The machining accuracy of CNC machine tools is generally up to 0.05-0.1MM. CNC machine tools are controlled in the form of digital signals. When the CNC device outputs a pulse signal, the moving parts of the machine tool move a pulse equivalent (generally 0.001MM), and the machine tool enters The reverse error of the transmission chain and the average error of the screw pitch can be compensated by the CNC device, so the positioning accuracy of the CNC machine tool is relatively high.

3. The processing quality is stable and reliable

Processing the same batch of parts, using the same tool and processing program under the same machining conditions, under the same processing conditions, the tool path of the tool is exactly the same, the consistency of the parts is good, and the quality is stable.

4. High productivity

五轴联动加工中心

The CNC machine tool can effectively reduce the processing time and auxiliary time of the parts. The spindle sound speed and feed range of the CNC machine tool are large, allowing the machine tool to perform powerful cutting with large cutting amounts. CNC machine tools are entering the era of high-speed machining. The rapid movement and positioning of CNC machine tool moving parts and high-speed cutting processing have greatly improved productivity. In addition, it can be used in conjunction with the tool magazine of the machining center to realize the continuous processing of multiple processes on one machine tool, reducing the inter-process turnaround time of semi-finished products and improving productivity.

5. Improve working conditions

The CNC machine tool is adjusted before processing, enter the program and start, the machine tool can automatically and continuously process until the end of the process. All the operator needs to do is input, edit, load and unload parts, prepare tools, observe the machining status, and inspect parts. The labor intensity is greatly reduced, and the labor of machine tool operators tends to be intellectual. In addition, machine tools are generally combined to be both clean and safe.

6. Utilize the modernization of production management

The processing of CNC machine tools can accurately estimate the processing time in advance, the tools and fixtures used can be standardized, modernized management, and it is easy to standardize the processing information. It has been organically combined with computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD / CAM) It is the basis of modern integrated manufacturing technology.